Come now, therefore, and I will send you to Pharaoh that you may bring my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt.
will send you to Pharaoh! I find that interesting. First God appears to a man who is not crying for deliverance. Now God is sending Moses to a man that is not asking for deliverance. Why is God sending Moses to Pharaoh? Shouldn’t he be sending Moses to the children of Israel? When will God ever deal with the people that need deliverance?
God deals with the people who need deliverance after he delivers them. To truly be delivered, you must be delivered from the source of the problem that produced the symptoms telling you there is a problem. Israel was depressed and crying because they have their eyes on the wrong Lord. They don’t even know who is Lord anymore. Pharaoh claimed he was their Lord. The Egyptians call Pharaoh Lord. Who is Lord? Before God left Egypt, Pharaoh and everyone who loved Pharaoh learned the hard way that a greater Lord than Pharaoh exists. Indeed Pharaoh had a Lord he should have obeyed.
Everything that happened in Egypt from the time Moses arrived until they departed taught us who God is. How can the people love the God of Abraham and serve him if they don’t know him? Israel could see and hear Pharaoh. The God of Abraham was the talk of their ancestors.
God will deliver us when we know him. He desires more than a servant. He desires sons and daughters who love and admire him. God knows he will not win your love by slapping you around and telling you what bad Christians you are. He endeavors to win our love by plaguing his competition for our love. If his competition gets in his way by refusing to let you worship him, he will destroy his competition. Especially if you are crying out to worship him and Pharaoh will not let you go! God is a jealous God but he is not bitter. He does not plague you when you hurt him.
If you desire to minister to others don’t ever take God’s place in the hearts of his people. If you really want to be ministered to keep your eyes off of the man God uses. After Marvin Gorman lost his church and suffered public shame he wrote a book called, The Road to Repentance explaining how God helped him deal with the things that had gone wrong in his life. He says,
“…the Lord showed me I had somehow convinced myself that “people needed me.” That was a lie. They didn’t need me; they needed a relationship with Jesus Christ. This perception of “being needed” is a stumbling block common to many church leaders. It flatters our ego to think that the Kingdom of God could not possibly move forward without our action or approval.”
If you allow God’s people to be your servants, they will end up depressed and crying because serving man is a heavy burden. Beware minister! If God’s people get depressed and start crying God just might visit you whether you want him to or not. You will sincerely repent or perish because God is a jealous God. Beware minister! Don’t get in a competition with God for the affection and service of his people. He is jealous for the love of his people. He is jealous to be our provider. You can never do for me what God can so do me a favor and stay out of his way. Pharaoh was in the way. Therefore, God had to deal with him before they left Egypt.
The Exodus story of how God plagued the competition for his love and freed his people to serve him wasn’t the first time God plagued a Pharaoh. God appeared to Abram in the land of Canaan and promised to give his seed some land. Abram built an altar and worshiped for a short time before he packed his bags and left. When Abram forsook the altar a famine followed, so he went down to Egypt in disobedience to God’s instructions for his life.
Abram gave God’s servant, Sarah, whom the New Testament tells us is symbolic of the New Jerusalem, to Pharaoh. To show his appreciation, Pharaoh treated Abram well by giving him gifts. Big mistake! God desires to possess the New Jerusalem whom Sarah symbolized and make her people rich. Abram let Pharaoh, a mere man who thinks he is a god take the place of a real God. Jacob’s children made the same mistake in Egypt. God reacted the same way both times it happened.
God sent Moses to Pharaoh with a message.
…Let My People go, that they may hold a feast to Me in the wilderness.
The struggle between Moses and Pharaoh was never about them leaving Egypt to establish a new nation. The only request Moses ever made of Pharaoh was let the people worship their God. The Egyptians were a religious people accustom to taking vacations so they could worship a god. Moses request was common. In the book Exploring Exodus the observation is made that,
“…the request for temporary relief from drudgery in order to celebrate a religious holiday was not something unreasonable or exceptional in the Egyptian system of state-imposed servitude. This is shown by the account of one supervisor of a gang of workmen, for instance, who kept a log in which he recorded the work habits of his forty-three laborers. He included the days of the month on which they were absent, as well as their excuses. While “illness” and “laziness” account for most failures to appear, “sacrificing to the god” is also given as a reason. One log reports that laborers building the royal necropolis enjoyed four days of holiday in order to celebrate a religious festival. In making his request, therefore, Moses could invoke the support of established precedent, and was not asking for a special privilege.” 
The writer of Exploring Exodus claimed Moses made this request to outwit Pharaoh but I take issue with that conclusion. Moses did what God told him to do. God made this request of Pharaoh not Moses.
Then they will heed your voice; and you shall come, you and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt; and you shall say to him, The Lord God of the Hebrews has met with us; and now, please, let us go three days journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God.
God did not have to outwit anybody or ask for permission. This request was an act of grace designed to give Pharaoh and those who serve him knowledge of the truth. God asked Pharaoh for permission to leave because God’s goodness leads us to repentance. But God told Moses at the burning bush it was his intent to bring them to a land of milk and honey. Did God lie to Pharaoh? Moses was only a mouthpiece. Did Moses lie for God when he said they were only going into the wilderness to worship God?
No, it was not a lie for several reasons. We are going to spend some time here because you need to understand this to understand what God did in Egypt.
First of all, God never said Moses would bring Israel into the Promised Land. That is our misconception because we don’t listen carefully to what God says. The Promised Land or land of promise is found one place in the Bible. I did a concordance search on five different versions. The only place I could find it was the book of Hebrews referring to Abraham who made his home in the Promised Land by faith. What the writer of Hebrews and Christians today call the “promised land” God called a land flowing with milk and honey. What flows through the land is more important than the land itself. God said to Moses,
So I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up from the land to a good and large land, to a land flowing with milk and honey…
God will do two things. Deliver them from the hand of the Egyptians and bring them to a land flowing with milk and honey. Moses will do one thing. Listen carefully to what God said to Moses.
Come now, therefore, and I will send you to Pharaoh that you may bring My people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt.
When addressing what Moses would do God only said he would bring them out of Egypt. He never said anything about Moses bringing them to a land flowing with milk and honey. God and God alone will bring us into the land of milk and honey. Now listen to what God said when Moses objected.
So He said, “I will certainly be with you. And this shall be a sign to you that I have sent you; When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God on this mountain.”
What will happen when Moses brings them out of Egypt? They will serve God on this mountain – the mountain where God appeared in the burning bush. Mt. Sinai is not located in Canaan, the Promised Land. Why didn’t God say, “This shall be a sign to you that I have sent you; When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God in a land of milk and honey?” God never said anything about Moses bringing them into the land of milk and honey. He said when you lead the people out of Egypt you will serve God on this mountain. Moses would only play a part in God delivering Israel out of the hand of the Egyptians. God never told Moses he would have a part in bringing them into a land flowing with milk and honey. Fact is Moses could only bring them into a land flowing with milk or law because Jesus is the honey or grace that would not be revealed for many more years.
I know you’re probably thinking that doesn’t matter; God and Moses knew they were not coming back. It was God’s intent to bring them into the land of milk and honey when he appeared to Moses therefore it’s a lie. NO it’s NOT!
Yes! It was God’s intent when he appeared to Moses to bring the people into a land of milk and honey. But I would add bringing people to a land of milk and honey was God’s intent when he appeared to Abraham. But it didn’t happen. Bringing people to a land of milk and honey was God’s intent when he appeared to Isaac. But it didn’t happen. Bringing people to a land of milk and honey was God’s intent when he appeared to Jacob. But it didn’t happen. Bringing people to a land of milk and honey was God’s intent when he spoke to Joseph in dreams. But it didn’t happen. And yes, bringing people to a land of milk and honey was God’s intent when he appeared to Moses. But it didn’t happen. And NO! Joshua did not bring them into a land of milk and honey. He only brought them into the land because God’s goodness leads you to repentance and they never repented of idol worship.
God does not define a land flowing with milk and honey by the borders of a nation. Abraham’s children are living on the land. Do you think they are enjoying milk and honey. Surviving as a nation has been a constant never ending struggle for Israel because no one has ever entered the land of milk and honey God desires to give us. When God revealed his intention to Moses, the only man able to bring us into a land flowing with milk and honey had not been born yet.
God defines a land by its people not the ground they walk on. When Jesus challenged the Jews to “destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up” they thought he was crazy. It took 46 years to build the temple of bricks. Jesus was not talking about bricks made out of mud. He was talking about his body made out of mud. The temple of God is built with living bricks not dead ones.
1 Peter 2:4-5 NKJ
Coming to Him as to a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God and precious, 5you also, as living stones, are being built up a spiritual house,
A land flowing with milk and honey is a land flowing with law and grace. Israel never got past law. If they had, they would have been blessed instead of cursed. Israel never received all the land God promised Abraham and his seed. They just thought they did. You will find a place or two in scriptures where someone says God gave them the land or they possessed the land. God even says they possessed the land but they never possessed a land flowing with milk and honey, and they never possessed all the land promised to Abraham. There were people who possessed the land before Israel crossed Jordan, but that didn’t make it God’s land flowing with milk and honey. Israel possessed some land but they never possessed the promise of milk and honey.
You have to be careful whom you listen to and you have to define things the way God does. Don’t interpret what God says and does in the light of what a man said and did. Interpret the words and deeds of men in the light of what God said and did. Don’t ever forget that God is not limited by time like we are. If you do, you will never understand how he has been good to us. The people who left Egypt never possessed the land flowing with milk and honey. How can I be so sure? God said so!
Ezekiel 20:13-17 NKJ
Yet the house of Israel rebelled against Me in the wilderness; they did not walk in My statutes; they despised My judgments, which, if a man does, he shall live by them; and they greatly defiled My Sabbaths. (Bear in mind they are still in the wilderness. They have not crossed Jordan yet.) Then I (God) said I would pour out My fury on them in the wilderness, to consume them. But I acted for My name’s sake, that it should not be profaned before the Gentiles, in whose sight I had brought them out. So I also raised My hand in an oath to them in the wilderness, that I would not bring them into the land which I had given them, ‘flowing with milk and honey,’ …
God knew before he sent Moses to Egypt they would not enter the land flowing with milk and honey because God had a secret, a mystery that could not be revealed until Jesus came. A mystery that could not be understood until Jesus fulfilled the law. Jesus revealed the mystery that God would include Gentiles in the land flowing with milk and honey with equal inheritance rights. God told Abraham he would be a Father of many nations. That did not mean Abraham’s children would start many new nations. It meant people from many different nations would be able to say Abraham is my father too giving us a legal right to all God has promised Abraham and his seed.
But you might argue even though this generation did not possess the land of milk and honey their children did. Did they? God did not bring their children into the land to possess the land flowing with milk and honey either. How can I be so sure? God said so!
Ezekiel 20:18-23 NKJ
“But I said to their children in the wilderness, ‘Do not walk in the statutes of your fathers, nor observe their judgments, nor defile yourselves with their idols. I am the LORD your God: Walk in My statutes, keep My judgments, and do them; hallow My Sabbaths, and they will be a sign between Me and you, that you may know that I am the LORD your God.’ “Notwithstanding, the children rebelled against Me; they did not walk in My statutes, and were not careful to observe My judgments, ‘which, if a man does, he shall live by them’; but they profaned My Sabbaths. Then I said I would pour out My fury on them and fulfill My anger against them in the wilderness. Nevertheless I withdrew My hand and acted for My name’s sake, that it should not be profaned in the sight of the Gentiles, in whose sight I had brought them out. Also I raised My hand in an oath to those in the wilderness, that I would scatter them among the Gentiles and disperse them throughout the countries,…
They crossed the Jordan least God’s name be profaned. They were the children of those God swore would not enter the land of milk and honey but they are no better than their fathers. Therefore, they became a witness to all generations that God can make sinners into a great nation but not a permanent nation. They lived on the land, but they did not possess the land of milk and honey either. Mercy had not yet been born and the covenant of law demanded God to scatter them all over the world. God swore an oath he would do it before they crossed Jordan and that is exactly what happened to them. Jeremiah tells us why.
Jeremiah 11:1-5 NKJ
The word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying, “Hear the words of this covenant, and speak to the men of Judah and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and say to them, ‘Thus says the LORD God of Israel: “Cursed is the man who does not obey the words of this covenant which I commanded your fathers in the day I brought them out of the land of Egypt, from the iron furnace, saying, ‘Obey My voice, and do according to all that I command you; so shall you be My people, and I will be your God,’ “that I may establish the oath which I have sworn to your fathers, to give them ‘a land flowing with milk and honey,’ as it is this day.” ‘
Jeremiah 11:5 NIV
Then I will fulfill the oath I swore to your forefathers to give them a land flowing with milk and honey’–the land you possess today.”
The oath God swore to give us milk and honey will be fulfilled when we learn to obey his voice and do all he commands. In the day God brought Israel out of the land of Egypt he told obey me so I can establish the oath I swore to your fathers to give them a land flowing with milk and honey. If God is talking to the people he brought out of Egypt “the oath swore to your forefathers” can only be a reference to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Abraham was the first one to hear the promise of a land flowing with milk and honey not Moses.
If living on the land was enough to satisfy God’s promise to possess a land flowing with milk and honey Abraham, Isaac and Jacob lived on the land just like their children. Abraham even owned or possessed some of the land. He bought it at a fair price from Ephron the Hittite. But it wasn’t a land flowing with milk and honey when Abraham lived there anymore than it was a land flowing with milk and honey when Abraham’s children returned from Egypt to live there. God promised Abraham a land flowing with milk and honey. He swore an oath he would do it, but he hasn’t done it yet. The oath was never fulfilled or established. So when will the oath be established or fulfilled?
God told Jeremiah I can’t establish the covenant UNTIL I have a people who obey my voice and do according to all that I command. Israel failed to obey his voice. This is Jeremiah’s day and they were in the process of being kicked off the land because the oath made to Abraham was never established and they broke the covenant of law. The consequence for breaking the law was to be cursed and scattered all over the world. God never promised to curse Abraham. He promised to bless Abraham. Abraham never entered into a covenant of law like his children did at Sinai.
The covenant God made with Abraham was never established. God has not done it yet. Today! In the year 2010 God has not done it yet. Why not! There was no man able to keep his end of a covenant with God until God himself came in the flesh of a man. We call him Jesus. He is our only hope of being blessed by God. Only in the new covenant Jesus represents can there be no more curse.
Jeremiah 31:31-34 NKJ
“Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah– not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them, says the LORD. But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My law in their minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. No more shall every man teach his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, ‘Know the LORD,’ for they all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says the LORD. For I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more
Jesus is the only one who can bring us into a land of milk and honey. Moses could only put the letter of God’s law in our hand. Jesus put the Spirit of God’s mercy in our minds and hearts.
God told Moses, I will bring them into the land. You will bring them out of Egypt to serve me in the wilderness. If you don’t understand this you will not understand the struggle that took place between God and Pharaoh. The writer of Exploring Exodus thought Pharaoh had to be outwitted or tricked because he had God limited to Moses day. This is where we get lost in understanding God. TIME!
God promised Abraham an eternal kingdom. There was no need for a resurrection if all God promised Abraham was a temporary kingdom. He could have given Abraham a temporary kingdom in Abraham’s lifetime.
God is eternal. He thinks in terms of the eternal. When he is thinking and speaking he is not limited by time. When we think and speak it is in terms of the 70 or 80 years we live. It makes many things God says and does appear to us to be dishonest but it’s not. His thoughts are not like our thoughts. We seldom see any farther than the day we die. If you are barren and unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ you are shortsighted even to blindness. Only in Jesus do we have the hope of more TIME. Our time is limited. God’s time is unlimited. The only way to participate in the things God will do is to have unlimited time. If there is no resurrection our faith is vain because our time is short.
God knew the covenant of law made at Mt. Sinai would be temporary because mortal man cannot keep a covenant of law with God and be blessed. That is why he established a covenant of grace with Abraham to give the land not to Abraham but to his seed. Paul said in Galatians ONE SEED meaning Jesus. It guaranteed that God could bless all men even the ones foolish enough to enter into a covenant of law if they would simply accept God’s grace. Jesus is the only seed of Abraham God knew would not sin. How did God know that? Because Jesus would be God in human flesh and God knows what he will do.
Therefore because God knew any covenant he made with man would not stand. When he said to Moses I will bring them into the land of milk and honey God was not thinking of the covenant he would make with the flesh sons of Abraham at Mt. Sinai. God was thinking of the covenant he would make with the spiritual sons of Abraham at Mt. Calvary. That is why Moses dying in the desert was no big deal. He never lost the kingdom God promised Abraham because that kingdom has not yet been established.
If you don’t understand that nobody has entered the land flowing with milk and honey yet it sounds like God lied to Pharaoh but he didn’t. The problem between God and Pharaoh is the same problem God has with some of his ministers today. They make God’s people their slaves. They use God’s people to build their dreams, their treasure cities, instead of teaching God’s people to wait for God’s dream.
The same problem Israel was having in the land of Egypt is often experienced in the day we live in. We belong in God’s kingdom but like Israel in Egypt we live in kingdoms built by men and desire to be accepted by those in power. The men who build the kingdoms of this age are working for God because there must be law and government. When men forsook God and then wrote laws and established governments they justified God for giving us laws to live by. What do you think life would be like if everybody did what was right in their own eyes. There has to be a standard we agree to live by. The war is over whose standard it should be? The war began before we were created because the angels sinned first.
2 Peter 2:4 KJV
…God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment;
We don’t call them angels anymore. We call them devils. Apparently, these angels did not have a choice about living in the kingdom God had built when they decided they did not want to be governed by God and sinned. They are being reserved unto judgment because we are God’s judgment that will justify what ever God decides to do to them. Just like the angels did not have a choice about living in God’s kingdom, we do not have a choice about living in the kingdoms men have built. Through Jesus sacrifice we have been given the option some of the angels rejected. We have a choice whether we want to live in the kingdom God is building or not. This kingdom has not come except in Spirit because the kingdom must be in our heart before God can establish it on the earth. Until his kingdom comes, we must obey the powers that be.
Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to evil. Do you want to be unafraid of the authority? Do what is good and you will have praise from the same. For he is God’s minister to you for good. But if you do evil, be afraid; for he does not bear the sword in vain; for he is God’s minister, an avenger to execute wrath on him who practices evil. Therefore you must be subject not only because of wrath but also for conscience sake.For because of this you also pay taxes, for they are God’s ministers attending continually to this very thing.
In the light of these scriptures who is Pharaoh?
Pharaoh is God’s minister! Three times Paul called governing authorities God’s ministers. But Pharaoh is more than a civil governing authority. Pharaoh was a governing authority who taught people about God, who God is, when to worship him and how to worship him. Pharaoh was a Pastor who abused his God given authority. The church is full of such Pastors nevertheless Peter tells us,
1 Peter 2:18
Servants, be submissive to your masters with all fear, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the harsh.
It is God’s will that we learn what it is like to be governed by the men we choose. Why? I can only conclude that God does not want us to make the same mistake some of the angels did. You will never truly love God’s governing authority until you learn to hate the way the authorities govern us in this age, both in and out of the church. Jesus said,
John 12:25 NKJ
He who loves his life will lose it, and he who hates his life in this world will keep it for eternal life.
He did not say to hate life. He said hate your life in this world. Even though men have tried, communism a prime example, we will never built a utopia in this age because this world is corrupt and passing away. All we can do is the best we can do until God brings his kingdom. Until then when you resist governments established by men, you are resisting God’s will. God is teaching us to hate our lives in this world. Thank God! Everything in this age is temporary including the authorities of this age because most if not all our problems can be traced back to someone who had authority over us and abused it.
If the authorities in my life had used their God given authority to build me up instead of tear me down I doubt I would have had a reason to abuse drugs when I was a teenager. I can’t remember anyone saying anything positive to me when I was growing up. Maybe someone did but it wasn’t often enough for me to remember. I can remember being told I had the IQ of a mosquito and would never make it in life. I can remember never being good enough. I can remember being excluded from the “in crowd”. I abused drugs as an escape from the misery of living under bad authorities that discouraged me. The source of most of our problems begin with the authorities governing our lives.
So! Am I saying I can blame the mess my life is in on someone else? Not entirely. We are not going that far in this series but after God deals with the sins of the governing authorities over Israel, he dealt with Israel’s sin. God gave them his law before they crossed Jordan. The decisions you make will determine how big a mess your life remains in or how big a mess you stay out of. Whatever human authority you are subject to today is never greater than God’s authority. Your deliverance begins with the authorities over you and ends in the decisions you make after God delivers you. If you don’t believe the authorities over you are the root of your problem consider the purpose of authority.
2 Corinthians 10:8 NKJ
For even if I should boast somewhat more about our authority, which the Lord gave us for edification and not for your destruction…
2 Cor 10:8 NIV
… the authority the Lord gave us for building you up rather than pulling you down…
God’s people were depressed and crying because “God’s minister”, Pharaoh, was abusing his God given authority. God gives authority to his ministers so they can edify us yet many use God given authority to destroy us. God gives his ministers authority so they can build you up yet many will pull you down. That is precisely why God’s people get depressed and cry. Pharaoh is using his God given authority contrary to God’s will.
Pharaoh is God’s minister who does not know where is authority came from and why it has been given. Pharaoh is God’s minister but he is not using his God given authority according to God’s will. The governments of nations and churches are full of minister’s abusing their God given authority.
So! What are we going to do until Jesus returns? I am tired of being depressed and suppressed by God’s ministers. I can only offer you one little ray of hope. A bad minister will depress you and make you cry, but he cannot stop God’s plan because Israel continued to multiply and grow under bad ministers. You know you are growing up spiritually when you desire to be governed by no one but God. That desire is created under the misery of bad leadership.
Real change starts at the bottom, it’s called a grass roots movement. If the people are happy with things the way they are. God is not going to make them mad at him by changing things. If you want God’s will you have to pray for it. When the disciples asked Jesus to teach them how to pray, he said OK. When you pray say,
Our Father in heaven, Hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come, Your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.
God’s will is always done in heaven, but it’s not done on earth unless you ask for it to be done.
Paul writes to Timothy,
1 Timothy 2:1
Therefore I exhort first of all that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men, for kings and all who are in authority, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and reverence.
If you are not praying for all who are in authority to do God’s will. You will not have a quiet and peaceable life because God’s ministers do not always do God’s will. Don’t pray for God to bless them. Don’t lead a rebellion against them. Pray that they will walk in God’s truth and follow God’s will. Blessing a bad minister will only make them worse. If you lead a rebellion against one, you just might find yourself rebelling against God. Let God decide who needs to be in authority and who doesn’t. God is able to change or remove a man that refuses to do his will if he is oppressing people who want God’s will. If you are happy with ministers the way they are. So be it!
Democracy is the best form of government in this wicked world we live in but it does not work for the good of all the people. It only works for the good of the majority even if the majority is corrupt. How can we overcome the will of an evil majority? We can pray that God will come and make things right because the majority may be greater than the minority but no one is greater than God. One man and God is a majority. It only takes a minority that desires God’s will to overcome the evil majority. But if you are content to be torn down instead of built up. If you are content to be destroyed instead of edified. If you are happy with God’s ministers the way they are God does not have a reason to act on your behalf. You have what you want. You can never lay a claim of wrong doing at his feet when he only gave you what you wanted. But if you want what God wants. If you will pray for God’s will to be done. He will come and deal with the authorities that are abusing their authority. He will call his ministers to repent for making you cry or they will perish because that is exactly what happened to Pharaoh!
 Page 142
 Exploring Exodus by Nahum M. Sarna page 55-56
 See Surviving the Wilderness by Teena Myers for God’s dealings with Israel’s sins.